Biometric authentication is a type of system that relies on the unique biological characteristics of a person in order to verify identity for secure access to electronic systems. Biometric verification is a subset of biometric authentication.
The biometric technologies involved are based on the how individuals can be uniquely identified through one or more distinguishing biological traits, such as fingerprints, hand/earlobe geometry, earlobe, retina and iris patterns, voice waves, keystroke dynamics, DNA and signatures.
Biometric technologies are used to secure a wide range of electronic communications, including enterprise security, online commerce and banking, PC/mobile access, etc.
Types of biometric authentication technologies
- Retina scan – image of the blood vessel pattern in the light-sensitive surface lining of a persons’ inner eye
- Iris recognition – unique patterns within the ring-shaped region surrounding the pupil of the human eye
- Fingerprint scanning – details in the pattern of raised areas and branches in a human finger image
- Finger vein ID – unique vascular pattern in an individual’s finger
- Facial recognition – faceprints identify over 80 nodal points on a human face
- Voice identification – characteristics created by the shape of the individual’s mouth and throat